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A New Deal for the Historical Events of the Song Dynasty

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During the reign of Emperor Song Renzong of Kangding and the second year of Qingli (1040-1042), Emperor Xixia of Yuan Dynasty launched several large-scale military offensives against Song. Both sides suffered large losses. As a result, they were concluded in 1044 (four years of Qingli). Peace treaty. History said that the calendar was peaceful. Provisions for peace negotiations: Yuan Hao canceled the Emperor's name and accepted the seal of the Song Dynasty; Song Fang gave Xixia Silver 72,000 yuan each year, 153,000 pieces of silk, 30,000 kilograms of tea, and said it was a gift of the year; open the border trade between the two sides and so on. After the Qingli agreement was concluded, the northwest border calmed for more than 20 years.

Fan Zhongyan

As early as the Song Taizong and Zhenzong periods, some people have proposed the reform. In the three years of Song Renzong's Tiansheng (1025), Fan Zhongyan wrote to the court and advocated political reform. Two years later, when Fan Zhongyan was in Yingtianfu's palm teaching college, he also had the "Shangxiangfushu" and made the same suggestion, but it was not accepted. During the Qing calendar year, Song Renzong was forced by the situation and instructed Fan Zhongyan and others to put forward suggestions for reform. In the three-year September of the Qing calendar, Fan Zhongyan wrote a note to Renzong on "Answers to the Ten Things", pointing out that the situation was internal and external difficulties and could not be reformed. He also proposed ten reform proposals, including rectifying the government, Cultivate talents, develop production, and strengthen military preparations. The focus is on rectifying officials, and reducing redundant officials and selecting talents are the means to rectify officials.

He believes that with the virtuous officials, politics can be done well, the people can find peace, they will not call disasters, and alleviate social conflicts. In the same year, Ren Zong promulgated several decrees and promoted the claims of Fan Zhongyan and others, the so-called Qingli New Deal. However, the reform proposal violated the interests of some bureaucrats and landowners, which caused strong opposition from the conservatives at the beginning. Only about a year later, Fan Zhongyan and others were forced to leave office, and the reform aborted.

The two reforms of the Northern Song Dynasty played a certain regulating and perfecting role in the integration of centralized power. For example, Fan Zhongyan advocated the establishment of ancestral halls, Yizhuang, clan properties, clan rules, and village covenants, which played the role of patriarchal blood. In addition to some reforms in the political system and ideological consciousness, Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi also carried out various rectifications in the economic aspect, such as June Gongtian and Hou Nongsang in the Qingli New Deal.

The above-mentioned trends are measures for the adjustment and strengthening of the centralized integration of authoritarian Fengzhong and Zhonghua by the two reforms of Shu and Song. In terms of social improvement and historical development, all measures of Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi were unsuccessful; but measured by strengthening the integration of feudal autocratic centralization in the Song Dynasty, such as through adjustments of bureaucracy, governance of financial economy, heavy agriculture Sang, Jun Gongtian, diminished military service, young crop law, exemption law, Fangtian average tax law, equal loss law, market change law, etc., have restricted mergers and expanded sources of fiscal taxation, which has strengthened the integration of authoritarian centralization and centralized power. Domination has extended the life of the feudal dynasty in the Northern Song Dynasty to a certain extent.

The Qingli New Deal was mainly limited to making superficial and minor reforms in the political mechanism, and did not dare touch too much on the fundamental issues of society and economy.


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